After the independence in year 1958 Ayub khan started import substitution as an industrial policy of consumer goods,not capital goods. It set up the textile industry , the incentive structure of taxes and duties were designed. The India keep on it’s import substitution for capital goods. Then Zia arrived and discarded both import substitution and switch to export orientation.He changed the taxes and duty structure. At that time India kept on its import substitution for capital goods. Then Benazir arrived and change nothing but to stuff loyalist in to the state enterprises setup by her father started up on the path to ruin and imported furnace oil power plants for which we don’t have enough foreign exchange . Then Nawaz arrived and started off an infrastructure development in communication and road structure and accordingly changed the taxes and duties. India kept on its import substitution for consumers good. Then Musharaf came and discarded everything done previously and switched to consumers led growth with easy and cheap consumers landing. Then Benazir came and change nothing but kept stuffing state enterprises. Then Nawaz came and reverted to building infrastructure. India completed its import substitution for consumers good and started to make direct foreign economic global power. India planted a mango tree in a pot and wait patiently for the fruit bearing. We planted a mango tree in the same pot but remove it with regular intervals inspect its roots and expect it to bear fruit.